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Friday, October 31, 2008

New Sharia products in Asia sought

The booming Islamic finance industry has yet to rub off on wealthy Asians who say there are far too few Sharia products to invest in, the private banking arm of Malaysia's second largest lender said yesterday.
Sharia investing is a key pillar in the Middle East and has caught the interest of non-traditional centres such as London and Singapore, but rich Asians are still cool on it.
Asia is a big potential market for the $1 trillion Islamic finance sector, with the Asia-Pacific home to 28 per cent of the world's high-net-worth-individuals, who are defined as those with investible assets of more than $1 million.
Even in Malaysia, which has the world's largest Sharia bond market, wealthy individuals have limited interest in Islamic assets.
"The appetite is still quite small because they continue to nibble," said CIMB Private Banking co-head Carolyn Leng.
The bank says it is Malaysia's top private banking firm with assets of 4.4 billion ringgit ($1.23bn). The bank expects to increase this to about 7bn ringgit by 2010, Leng said.
"Offering of Islamic products are not that great here, what you have is probably what the market (outside) has as well. Product innovation is key, we need to be a lot more creative."
Structured products and Islamic bonds are the main sharia products that wealthy Malaysians put their money into, Leng said.
In contrast to Asia, Middle East investors have a wider choice of Islamic offerings as banks tap their global resources to structure innovative products, Leng said.
"There are a lot of derivatives-based kind of products. The way they structure some options into their products is interesting because it's done in such a way that it's a profit-sharing method," she said.
Islamic banking products can be bought and sold by all investors, regardless of individual religious belief, and is premised on the notion of ethical investing.
Islamic banks have been barely bruised by the global financial crisis, although falling property and commodity prices and slowing economies are starting to affect the sector.
Source : Gulf Daily News

Best International Islamic Bank : HSBC Amanah (Euromoney)

HSBC Amanah is the global Islamic banking division of the HSBC Group, and was established in 1998 with the aim of making HSBC the leading provider of Islamic banking worldwide. With more than a hundred professionals serving the Middle East, Asia Pacific, Europe and the Americas, HSBC Amanah represents the largest Islamic banking team of any international bank.
HSBC has a rich tradition of community banking, and HSBC Amanah was established to serve the particular financial needs of Muslim communities. Our mission statement and corporate values reflect this vision.
The HSBC Amanah mission statement:
HSBC Amanah is committed to improving the lives of our customers worldwide by providing them with the highest quality Islamic banking solutions.

HSBC Amanah´s corporate values:
In developing our products and services, we are committed to the highest Shariah standards in the Islamic banking industry. We constantly strive to address the needs and concerns of our customers. Our teamwork with HSBC colleagues around the world harnesses the knowledge and resources of HSBC Group for the benefit of our customers. We are an organisation that demands and rewards excellence. We maintain high ethical standards in our business relationships and invest in the future of our communities.
HSBC Amanah considers Shariah compliance of its business operations as its most important & strategic priority. This is reflected in its Corporate Values, "In developing our products and services, we are committed to the highest Shariah standards in the Islamic banking industry." In addition to Global Shariah Advisory Board and Regional Shariah Committees, HSBC Amanah employs a team of qualified professionals to ensure that the guidance and advice received from the Shariah Committees is implemented in letter and spirit.
HSBC Amanah Global Shariah Advisory Board
The Global Shariah Advisory Board (GSAB) advises HSBC Amanah on research activities intended for further development of the Islamic finance industry. GSAB comprises of representative scholars from all Regional Shariah Committees (RSC) of HSBC Amanah in addition to other Shariah scholars of international standing. The presence of renowned scholars from various geographies at GSAB will provide an opportunity to achieve further harmonization of Shariah standards and practices of Islamic Finance Industry. The following independent Shariah scholars are currently members of GSAB.
Sheikh Justice (Retd.) Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Pakistan, Sheikh Hussain Hamid Hassan (Egypt), Dr. Muhammad Achmad Sahal Mahfudh (Indonesia), Dr. Mohammed Daud Bakar (Malaysia), Sheikh Dr. Mohamed Ali Elgari (Saudi Arabia), Sheikh Nizam Yaquby (Bahrain),and Dr. Mohammad Akram Laldin (Malaysia)
HSBC Amanah operations are closely supervised by four Regional Shariah Committees (RSCs) in addition to a Central Shariah Committee (CSC). The CSC supervises HSBC Amanah businesses as well as operations in UAE, Qatar, UK, USA and Bangladesh. The CSC comprises of following well-known scholars: Sheikh Nizam Yaquby, Sheikh Dr. Mohamed Ali Elgari and Sheikh Dr. Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani.

HSBC Amanah operations in Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are supervised by following independent RSCs.
HSBC Amanah has won the Euromoney 2005 awards for Best Islamic Wholesale Bank and Best for Private Banking Services.
HSBC Amanah has won the following awards:
Euromoney awards : Best International Provider of Islamic Financial Services (2004), Best International Sukuk House (2004), Best Islamic Wholesale Bank (2005), Best for Private Banking Services (2005).
Award-winning transactions : Emirates ECA-backed financing 2001, (Euromoney, Jane´s Transport Finance, Institutional Investor, Airfinance Journal), Government of Malaysia Global Sukuk - 2002,(Euromoney, Institutional Investor, Asiamoney, FinanceAsia), Emirates IV, with Islamic Development Bank - 2003 and (Jane´s Transport Finance)

Thursday, October 30, 2008

The "Islamic Economic" can be a new model to overcome the "bublle" economy

Director of the Bank Muamalat U Saefudin Noer, Wednesday, said that the "Islamic Economic" can be a new model to overcome the "bublle" economy that occurred at this time.

"Many countries now see the economic system of Islam to be a reference to the 'bubble or bublle' which occurs at this time," said Saefudin, to ANTARA when speaking in Jakarta, Wednesday.

Some countries have started to develop the economy of Islam, such as Hong Kong develops with the "Islamic Economic Center," he said.

One of the problems of the financial crisis that the United States is related to the industry "sub-prime mortgage" (KPR Subprima).

He also mentioned that the problems of the crisis that the world economy at this time, not only caused the system doubt the ability of capitalism to realize prosperity in the world, but also caused by the change in the moral ethics of the perpetrators of the financial world.

The capitalist-style economic actors is more likely to do engineering products for speculative profits, which tend to be ravenous (greedy), said Saefudin.

The main difference between conventional banks with Sharia bank is located on the basis of philosophy. The Sharia Bank does not implement interest in all activities, while the bank had kovensional implement interest. This system is a very profound difference to the products developed by the sharia banks, where interest rates to avoid the system, the system being developed is the buying and selling partnership which was held in the form of the results.
In addition, Saefudin also said that the bank also pro real sector, thus encouraging the state economy moving, so it can save from the crisis.
Drafts of the sharia is applied banks invest client funds in the bank first into the business, the business profit is distributed.
Unlike customers with savings in conventional banks, no matter whether the saving in the pipe to the business or not, the bank is still obliged to pay interest, he said.
Islamic banking in Indonesia, which first appeared is PT Bank Muamalat Indonesia (BMI) was founded in 1992 that this is not to get the injection of government funds during the crisis and 1998.
Experience that can be used as evidence that the economic system of Islam that is applied in BMI can be safe from the crisis that occurred in the sectors of the banking industry, he said.
"At the time of the banking crisis of 1998 and Indonesia have raised interest rates high tribes, so that there is a negative margin because the banks can not distribute the credit back and bad debts arising," jelasnya.Dia also revealed that the growth of sharia banks in Indonesia is very rapid, but " size "it is still small. "The growth of sharia banks of 60 percent last year, is still Sharia bank assets around 2-3 percent compared to conventional banks," he said.

While market alone sharia bank, BMI has controlled 35 percent market share, with most of the transactions system traksaksi murabahah (Sale-purchase), followed by mudharabah transaction system (for results) and transaction system Ijarah (lease). The challenge Sharia bank Indonesia's current need for greater capital to develop the business, human resources, which have not been able to offset growth and the office network. Saefudin also revealed that sharia banks will not do large-scale funding of the conventional banks are pengetatan liquidity crisis at this time. "We will not stop the funding, but the system needs to be improved Prudential (prudential) in the distribution of funds," he explained, reported by Republika.

Obama Favored in Key Muslim Countries

Gallup Polls conducted in May-August 2008 in six predominantly Muslim countries show that public interest in who wins the U.S. presidential election ranges from comparatively high in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon to very low in Pakistan. Those who do express a preference tend to prefer Democratic candidate Barack Obama to Republican candidate John McCain by margins of at least 2-to-1.
Attributable to the historic nature of the 2008 U.S. presidential race and presumed foreign policy differences between Obama and McCain, the conventional wisdom is that the race has generated unprecedented levels of interest worldwide. Yet only in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon do majorities of those Gallup polled voice a preference for a presidential candidate. In Saudi Arabia, more than two-thirds of those polled do so, with 50% preferring Obama versus 19% for McCain. This is similar to Lebanon, where 45% favor Obama versus 18% for McCain.
Fewer than half of Palestinians and Kuwaitis voice a preference for Obama or McCain, however, as do just 30% of Turks. In each of these countries, the margin of preference for Obama among those who do state a preference is about 3-to-1. Among Palestinians, where 33% favor Obama compared to 11% for McCain, the bulk of those who offer an opinion live in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, with few Gaza residents stating a preference.
Interestingly, the 10% of Pakistanis who express an opinion about the election are evenly split in their preferences between Obama and McCain. Pakistanis' disinterest is noteworthy considering the high-profile nature of Pakistan's relationship with the United States.

The Obama Factor
In each of the six countries surveyed a majority of those who do say the winner of the U.S. presidential election makes a difference to their country favor Obama. There is little evidence that people in the Muslim world view Obama in the context of his father's religious origins in Kenya, as the Arab media only typically mention this connection when there has been a stir about it in the U.S. media. For the most part, the Arab media simply portray Obama as an American.

Perceived Relevance of U.S. Election
Across the six Muslim countries surveyed, the percentage of respondents who say the outcome of the election makes a difference to their country ranges from a high of 42% in Lebanon to a low of 10 % in Pakistan.
Though country variations can't be pinned to a single factor, the presence of U.S. troops in Iraq and other Muslim countries -- as well as the possibility of an impending conflict with Iran -- make the perceived lack of relevance across all six countries somewhat surprising. However, among the majorities who say either the outcome of the election does not make a difference to their country or did not express an opinion on the issue, the default reaction may be to simply expect foreign policy as usual -- whichever candidate is elected, reported by Jihad Fakhreddine

Survey Methods
Results based on face-to-face interviews with 1,150 Saudis, aged 15 and older, conducted in May 2008; 1,000 Lebanese, aged 15 and older, conducted in May 2008; 804 Pakistanis, aged 15 and older, conducted in June 2008; 1,004 Turks, aged 15 and older, conducted in July 2008; 1,000 Palestinians, aged 15 and older, conducted in August 2008; and 484 Kuwaiti nationals, aged 15 and older, conducted in June 2008, For results based on the total sample of national adults in each survey, one can say with 95% confidence that the maximum margin of sampling error is ±5 percentage points. In addition to sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of public opinion polls.

Monday, October 27, 2008

Interview : Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (6)

The 20th century was a century in which the Muslim world experienced the hands of the West in the perception of the Muslim world -- a dismantling of some of its important constructs. The most significant of that was the dismantling of the Ottoman caliph. Because for the first time in the collective consciousness of Muslims, there is no caliph anywhere. And it was replaced-- especially in major population centers of the Muslim world, those that were important at the turn at the beginning of the twentieth century: Turkey, Egypt, Iran -- the traditional forms of rulership were replaced by militantly secular regimes. Not only secular regimes, but militantly secular regimes, which did not even support traditional values which were cherished by the people. In Turkey, for instance, Ataturk himself forbade the calling of the prayer in the Arabic language. They changed the script of Ottoman Turkish from Arabic script to the Roman script.
So the Muslim world felt that there was a deliberate attempt to create a split in that bond which Muslims had. ... So what happened created a split between Arabs and Turks ... and refigured the map and created new identities of people.
People [had] thought of themselves as part of a group. You had the family, the clan, the tribe and extended notion of a tribe, a people, a nation. So for example the Uzbekis were split geographically. So you have some Uzbekis in Uzbekistan, some in what we call Afghanistan.
The Pashtun people were split: some in Pakistan, some in Afghanistan. The Hazaris were split between Iran and Afghanistan. We tell these people, this segment of Uzbekis, Pashtuns and Hazaris, now think of yourself as a completely new identification based upon geography, which people did not have before. And this seeded conflict. ...
We did the same thing in Iraq, and the Kurds lost out. They are split between Iraq and Turkey. So the West planted the seed for some grave problems in the Muslim world. But at the same time, they robbed the Muslim world in the minds of the Muslims, from a sense of identity that was based upon people, and also a sense of pluralism that existed within the Muslim dialectic. So within, let's say, the Ottoman caliphate, they had a principle of different peoples.
So they had the notion that the sultan had political power over these different people. But these peoples had their different cultural norms, different religions. They had their different religious leaders, as long as political homage was paid to the sultan, and they didn't act in a way which was treasonous politically. They had their own court system, dealing with matters of religious affairs and so forth.
All was part of this of this grouping of people. So we had a method of pluralism which worked, which was successful. And there were instances of intermarriage between the people and so forth, but people lived harmoniously. It created what Samuel Huntington calls "torn societies."... Samuel Huntington describes a torn society as "a society whose leadership, those who hold the reins of the power, identify with a different set of cultural norms than the people on whom they govern."

And what would be the key implications that came of this fracturing, tearing apart, in the way Islam has been lived?

I think the major thing is that Muslims have been taught to think in certain ideas that are peculiarly Western -- the idea of nationalism, the idea of nation states. And in their attempt to fulfill their natural urge to perfect themselves as Muslims individually and collectively, they therefore try to create some peculiar hybrids.
Like the notion of an Islamic state, for instance. Several generations of Muslims now have been educated in ways that their mindset and ways of thinking, if not their language even, is very much Westernized. So they think in terms of Western ideas and concepts, even if they speak their own native languages.
So the urge therefore to develop an Islamic nation-state -- a concept which some people may regard as being an oxymoron, because the nation-state is not something which developed out of the Islamic tradition ... that the Islamic philosophical tradition was based upon identification of grouping of peoples, who had governed themselves according to living in certain ways and structured in a slightly different way. ...

There seems to be a growing conservatism, or conservative interpretation of Islam taking hold. Is that something you have seen, or agree with?
I think that in the 20th century there are certain waves that occurred. There was, at one point in time, a feeling -- in fact, when you go back to the first part of the twentieth century, there were some well-known voices who grew out of Islamic tradition but who were exposed to the West ... who felt the need to restate what it means to be a Muslim in the 20th century. They found many aspects of Western society to be highly admirable, and wanted to bring it to their own countries.
In fact, in the 1920s the Wafd party was founded in Egypt to introduce democracy into Egypt. And the Wafd party had on its platform Egyptians -- not only Egyptian Muslims but Egyptian Jews and Egyptian ... Christians from the Coptic Church on the platform.
So there was an attempt to meld the best of the of the East with the best of the West. These movements ... were interrupted by events of World War II and the rise of militant dictatorial regimes, which completely changed the sociological complexion, the political complexion of much of the Muslim world. During that period of time, I would say 1950s and 1960s, there was a time when these regimes had the upper hand. And they felt that the way to fast-forward as societies, in terms of the industrial development, was to emulate the West in all of its aspects.
Their policies didn't succeed. And this resulted in a reaction to much of these policies, because this newfangled way of doing things didn't work. Let's go back and revisit our traditions, and let's find comfort in those traditions. ...

Could you just explain to us the key things that Islam, Christianity and Judaism have in common -- what they share?

They share geography. They share Jerusalem, which is important to all. We share a common ancestor, Abraham, who was really the founder and the patriarch of all of us. And I think if we can revert back to the Abrahamic foundation, that is [where] we will find our common ground. Our languages are very similar -- Arabic and Hebrew and Aramaic ... . The ideas are very similar; and the fundamental impulse of belief in God, that God is the creator, that we are obliged to act in a way that is ethical and just and right. These are certainly among the important aspects of kinship between these three faith traditions. And I would even go further and say -- apart perhaps from some differences in the notion of God -- but as far as the idea of the common good, the idea of social justice -- [that] is shared with all faith traditions.
Source : Frontline : Muslims

Interview : Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (5)

It seems there is a societal dimension to being a Muslim, in terms of the ways one would like one's society to be organized. Are there conflicts in that sense between how one would like society to be, and the realities of American society?

I would say that Muslims in America, especially those who come from other countries, experience both an attraction, a strong attraction, to the positive things that America offers: freedom, political freedom; economic mobility and well-being, the ability to live a materially comfortable life. These are all the things that draws people from all over the world, Muslim and non-Muslim, to this country.
However, there are certain things that people, even when they come from their own country, don't like to give up. They don't like to give up certain aspects of their cultural norms. Their practices of family relationships they try to maintain. Their cuisines they like to maintain. Those values, which they consider to be their ethics, they like to maintain.
And so Muslims who have come to this country generally believe that the democratic principles, the political principles, the economic structure of this country really resonates with the faith of Islam, and draw them to this country.
To the sense that, let's say, American social norms or values are not supportive of the families -- in those issues, Muslims may happen to have a different opinion. [On] those values which violate their sense of decency, they may have a different opinion.
In a certain sense, much of the ethical and moral issues which Muslims feel strongly about in this country is shared by what you might call the Christian majority in this country -- more of the moral mooring, or the sense of decency, which is commonly shared in other faith traditions.
... I also believe that, as the American Muslim community matures in this country, that the American Muslim community will be an interlocutor, and important intermediary between the West and the Muslim world. And more so today, because today, we have much more much easier communications between the immigrant Muslim population and their extended families in the Muslim world. ... Unlike those who immigrated a century ago from Europe, there is maintained contacts with the Old World and the New [World]. And this phenomenon will give rise to a much different sense of what it means to be a Muslim in the world.

Tell me more about that. What is an American Muslim -- if there is such a thing as "an American Muslim?"

I think it is very much a work in progress. If you look at what happened to the Muslim-American community over the last, say, 40 years, it is a mosaic; it is a cross-section of the Muslim world.
We look at the Muslim centers, or mosques, starting with the early 1970s as waves of immigration began to occur from the Muslim world. You found, as certain ethnic groups reached critical mass, that mosques sprouted with a very ethnic complexion. So we have a Turkish mosque in Brooklyn, an Albanian mosque. You will find a West African mosque, mainly from French- speaking West Africans from Senegal and Mali [in] the Bronx, for instance.
You have also always had African-American mosques. You have Arab mosques, Hindu, Pakistani mosques, Bangladesh mosques.
However, what we are seeing is that these mosques tend to be maintained in terms of their cultural complexion and their general collective psychology by the continued immigration from the Old World. The second generation, the children of these immigrants, are finding themselves with a different psychological complexion. And I see a development of an American Islamic identity, which is currently a work in progress, which will be kind of the sum total of these influences.
But amongst those who are born in this country, or came very early into this country at a very early age, they grew up with a sense of belonging to the American scene, which their parents did not have. The immigrants tend to come here with a little bit of a guest mentality. But those who are born and raised here feel they are Americans. We have to define ourselves as Americans. And just as I said earlier, when Islam spread to Egypt, and Iran, and India, it restated its theology and its jurisprudence within the cultural context of those societies. It also anticipated that Islam will restate itself within the language constructs, within the social constructs, within the political constructs of American society, as well. ...

What do you think will come of the American influence on Islam?

I think the major lesson that will that will come out of it is the increased democratization of our societies, our Islamic societies. The increased democratization of Islamic societies, and the sense of greater equality amongst people, whether on the basis of gender, the elimination of any vestiges of a class society. ...

Do you think we have witnessed a period of reactionary-ism against the Western influence within the Muslim world in the past 50 or 100 years?
Source : Frontline : Muslims

Interview : Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (4)

Can you explain Sharia?

The word "Sharia" is the term given to define the collectivity of laws that Muslims govern themselves by. And there is a presumption that these laws recognize all of the specific laws mentioned in the Quran and in the practice of the prophet, and do not conflict with that. So any law, anything studied in the Quran or the hadith, is definitely [Sharia]. The idea is that it is divinely legislated, that the creator also has legislated certain things for us.
But in the community of Muslims, it was recognized very early on that the Quran and the hadith do not speak to all issues. And there are many issues which are not necessarily addressed in the Quran and the hadith, that the Quran is silent on. ... There is a recognition in the [science] of Islamic jurisprudence that there are issues which have to be obtained by analogy, by consensus, and other [subsidiary] sources of jurisprudence. But as long as they don't conflict with the Quran and hadith of the prophet, it's considered to be, quote, unquote, "Sharia."

The flexibility built in there, you know, the using of your own common sense, is that what allows different places to apply Sharia differently?

Well, I wouldn't phrase it quite that way. The correct phrasing would be that when people think about Islamic law, there's a presumption that all of Islamic law is Quranic, or emanates from the Quran and the hadith. The point is, and the truth of the matter is, what really defines Islamic law [is] the sum total of Islamic law as has been practiced by Muslims throughout the last 14, 15 centuries ... . Generally, it emanates from the Quran and the hadith. The Quran and the hadith are a limiting factor and a shaping factor. But any body of laws that includes and embodies the specific commandments and prohibitions mentioned in the Quran and the hadith, that does not violate any of these things, has been considered as Sharia, as Islamic. And this allows a lot of variation of opinion, in things which the Quran and the hadith are relatively silent on as long as the principles are maintained, of justice, et cetera.

My understanding of [the Sharia] rules about punishment for matrimonial infidelity [is that] you have to have four eyewitnesses, or several eyewitnesses to the [act] in order to demand the death penalty. It's almost inconceivable to me that you could ever produce that kind of eyewitness or evidence. But we hear that these kinds of punishments are meted out fairly regularly. Is the law being followed the way it's set [out]?

You cannot judge a whole body of law by one instance of criminal law. When people think about Sharia law, they often think about the penalties for certain crimes. They don't think about the sum total of Islamic law and its jurisprudence, which means the underlying structure and philosophy and understanding of how you arrive at what we call the Islamically correct decision. You do not define Sharia law by just a couple of penalties. ...
Islamic law has a few penalties for certain crimes. But the rules of evidence, as you mentioned in the case of adultery, require either the free confession by the individual and/or the existence of four witnesses who are of sound mind and who fit the description of qualified witnesses, which is very rare to obtain.
Much of what we see when we hear of events that apply Sharia law, what we see in Nigeria, for instance, or even in Pakistan, is a desire by much of the people to see the general principles of justice followed. ... It is a desire by the people to see their system of laws be more equitable. It is a call for correction of the overall system of social justice, of economic justice, which the Quran calls for, and the example of the prophet calls for.
You see, Muslims have an ideal. Part of their ideal is to follow what they call the example of the prophet, the Sunna of the prophet. So at an individual level, a human being who wants to perfect himself or herself looks to the tradition of the prophet, his individual practice, and tries to emulate the prophet as much as possible.
There is also a collective subliminal ambition that Muslims have, that at a collective level, they also embody the ideals of the community that the prophet developed in Medina. So when Muslims today speak of the attempt to establish an Islamic state, what they are really saying is that they would like to have a community that lives in accordance with the ideals, the relationships, the social contract, which the prophet had developed in Medina with his companions and how they had this amongst each other. ...

In what ways do Western values, morals, and cultural practices, intrude upon, and [in what ways] are they at variance with Islamic ideals?

I think there are two aspects to this question, in the broader sense of the word. There is Western values regarding governance; Western values regarding separation of powers; Western notions regarding what the role of government is in society; Western notion in terms of democratic institutions and principles and ideas. And to a large extent, Muslims are very enamored of these systems, and would like to implement them in their own societies ... because these principles and norms are completely in sync with the principles of the Quran and the teachings of the prophet. Muslims would like very much to implement these norms within their societies.
When you come to speak about things like behavioral norms, gender relationships, or the kind of things that people will do, this is a separate issue. And there is another aspect of the West, and that is the attitude of the West towards the non-Western countries, in terms of trying to be presumptuous in telling them how they should even live their lives in ways that they are not accustomed to -- like modes of dress, for instance. In the 1930s, when the first shah of Iran forced his soldiers at bayonet point to force Iranian women to take off the chador, for instance.
People don't like to be told how to dress. This is a matter of personal individual conscience. Even we here in the West do not insist that our students in public schools wear uniforms. We give them that level of freedom. People do not like to be told how to do certain things in their personal lives.

What are the key differences between being a Muslim in America and being a Muslim in the Muslim world?
There are many aspects to that. There is the political aspect, the sociological aspect, the social and family aspect, the economic aspect. So there are many aspects to the to the difference between living in a Muslim country as a native especially, and living in this country. ...
If I were to look at maybe the broadest difference: there is a sense of freedom in the United States. So one practices one's faith in the United States as an act of deliberate choice. If you are not [doing so, it's] not so much because of social pressure. There may be a certain amount of social pressure. But at a certain point in one's life, one is relatively free to live one's life as one chooses in this country.
And that sense of freedom makes one's religiosity or the defining lines of one's religiosity much sharper. Religion is a much more personal thing here. It is also a deeper experience within the personal envelope. One is forced to attach oneself to one's religion in a personally deeper way in terms of the existential issues -- it has to be anchored on a much deeper existential foundation.
Another aspect about living in the United States is that one experiences a lot of negative media attention to one's Islamicity. And that has resulted, and can result in a reaction one way or the other by many people. Many Muslims feel in this country like the Christians did in Rome when they were fed to the lions. And here the lions are the media. We hope that perhaps things will change in the United States, as they did in Rome, as well.
Source : Frontline : Muslims

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Interview : Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (3)

Who decides the rules of Islamic jurisprudence?

The thing about the Islamic situation is we don't have a church. We don't have an ordained priesthood, which makes it a little complicated. But we do have a tradition of scholarship, and rules of scholarship. It's very much like any field of knowledge.
Take any field of knowledge, like physics or biology or chemistry. Anybody can become a chemist or a biologist or a physicist. But there are rules [developed], and a kind of a growing consensus of opinion on how one should think correctly to arrive at what would be deemed a right, a correct decision.
Analogously, there is, in Islam, a tradition of theological interpretation, of [juridical] understanding and knowledge. And as long as you abide by these, the consensus of understanding on how you arrive at a decision, certain differences of opinion are considered equally valid.

What about interpretations regarding women, in particular? We find, in many parts of the world that tend to be populated by Muslims, it seems that women are getting the short end of the stick.

Well ... the prophet, for his times, was a feminist. And there are certainly voices within the Muslim world who believe and argue very strongly for the rights of women. But gender relationships really deal with the cultural norms of a particular group and the times in which they live. If one were to say, for instance, that American women are behind Muslim women -- and I pick the fact that there have been five Muslim women heads of state, and that the United States is behind the Muslim world in this regard -- that would not be considered to be an accurate assessment of how women are regarded in a particular society. One has to look at the sum total ... of the norms and the relationships and the understandings that exist in a given society in a given time. ...
Some of what we see may be considered to be inequities. But we have to remember that when Islam spread from Arabia to what we consider the Muslim world today, it spread through countries and societies which had very ancient traditions. Egypt had an ancient tradition, Iran, another ancient country, Persia before that. The subcontinent of India: another ancient culture. Same thing with current-day Turkey, the Byzantine Empire. ...
Through that, many cultural norms became to be considered by societies as being Islamic, but they're really cultural. So in matriarchal societies, which you will see some matriarchal societies like in West Africa or in Egypt, you'll find women very, very influential. Women hold the purse strings; women determine a lot of what happens, because ancient Egypt had a tradition of having women kings, women queens, queens of Egypt.
Whereas in some societies, which tended to be nomadic, it was very much more male-oriented, and the patriarchal and very strong male orientation became predominant. So as you go across much of the Muslim world, you will see this diversity, which really entered into Muslim life through custom, and not through the Quran and the hadith itself.

Can you define "hadith" for an American audience?
The word "hadith" means any report of something the prophet either said or did. That's hadith with small "h.". Hadith with capital "H" is the collection of all these reports.

Which have been carefully substantiated or authenticated?
There are all kinds of grades of hadith, from the most authentic to those that have been forged, and various degrees in between. Islamic hadith scholarship actually is a very fascinating study, because through the different hadith you get a slice of Islamic history. The politics of what happened at different periods of time are all manifest in the hadith.

And the Sunna, similarly.
The word "Sunna" is used to mean the normative practice of the prophet. In fact, the jurists have defined the general Sunna of the prophet to mean everything the prophet did or said. The hadith is the report of the Sunna. And of the practice of the prophet, there's a certain class of actions that are normative for Muslims to follow, Sunna which has legal value, has a precedent value. And there is Sunna which has no Sharia value. For instance, the prophet prayed a certain way. This has Sharia value, we're supposed to pray that way. The prophet went to hajj on a camel -- doesn't mean that we have to ride a camel from Medina to Mecca for our hajj to be valid. We can take a car. We can take a plane, because that Sunna has no Sharia value.
Source : Frontline : Muslims

Interview : Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (2)

If the message is the same, then how come the people don't agree with each other?

Well, God's perennial lament -- not only in the Quran, but in other scriptures as well -- is that people generally do not follow God's dictates and the guidance and the mandate that God has offered to humanity to follow. We tend to be recalcitrant. We tend to be disobedient to divine guidance. And if you look at human conflict, it has even existed within people of the same religious tradition. I don't need to remind you that even among those who call themselves Muslims there has been a lot of bloodshed.

We're finding that it's very hard to define who Muslims are. Every time we figure, oh, that's what it is, or that's who they are, there's an exception to the rule. There's a very traditional housewife-looking lady in Malaysia who's also an OB/Gyn who ministers to unwed mothers. We have girls in Turkey who are saying, "Look, we want to express ourselves as Muslims. We want to cover our hair." And we have a secular government that's discriminating against them -- women who want to cover, women who don't. Men who want to keep women in the house; men who agree that women have absolute opportunity to do what they need to do in society. How does this all fit?

The definition of the faith of Islam that I gave you before is the Quranic universal definition of the human being vis-a-vis the creator. There is a narrower definition of Islam which is used, which is those who follow the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. Now, according to that definition, their Islam is defined by what was commonly called the five pillars of faith. This is what theologians call the orthopraxy, or the orthopraxis. It means the practices which define you as a Muslim.
There are also five articles of creed, of belief, which theologians call the orthodoxy. That which defines you as a Muslim, if you adhere to these beliefs, [parallels] to, say, [Christianity] and Judaism, that in the Jewish faith, there is an orthopraxy, not much of an orthodoxy. As long as you abide by the rituals, the dietary laws, male circumcision, et cetera, et cetera, there is flexibility within the Jewish tradition on what you might choose to believe in to be considered as a member of the Jewish faith community. So there is flexibility in whether [you] believe in an afterlife, heaven and hell and so forth.
In the Christian faith, you have the opposite situation. You have a fundamental orthodoxy, which is, you have to believe that Jesus Christ is savior. If you believe wholeheartedly that Jesus Christ is savior, you are saved; you receive salvation. And there's a great flexibility on the ritual end. What you do in terms of prayers or dietary laws, circumcision, et cetera, there's flexibility on that.
In Islam, we have both an orthodoxy and an orthopraxy. The orthodoxy of the Islamic faith is defined as a belief in the oneness of God and the right attitude, the right understandings of God, as I mentioned earlier. A belief in the angels, beings created of light, who convey the divine commandments. The belief that God communicated to humanity via scriptures. And these scriptures are considered to be both oral and written form. ... And the belief that God also communicated his guidance and messages and teachings to humanity via human intermediaries, human messengers, we call them. prophets, or messengers.
And the last item of the Islamic orthodoxy is the belief in the last day. The last is a compound concept which means that this creation will, in fact, come to an end. So those of us who believe in the big bang theory, there will be a big implosion, in other words, at the end of time, so to speak, followed by a day of resurrection, where all the souls shall be resurrected; followed by a day of judgment, where all souls will be judged; followed by the obtaining of divine approval or divine disapproval. A pass grade or a failing grade. Those who get a passing grade will be in paradise. Those who get a failing grade will be in what we call hell. And the underlying theme of the last day is that we are all accountable for our ethical actions. ... That's the orthodoxy.
The orthopraxy of Islam is a declaration of faith: the statement that there is no God but God; that Muhammad is the messenger of God; the five-time daily prayer; the giving of alms, typically 2.5 percent of one's income or assets; the fasting of the month of Ramadan; and the going to pilgrimage, or hajj, once in one's lifetime, if one can afford it, financially and physically. Anybody who does these things is within the box of Islam.
There are other things, secondary things. Rules of dress and rules of behavior and rules of what may be considered right or wrong. And these come from cultural norms and from secondary sources of jurisprudence. But anybody who believes in these things and practices these things is a Muslim. ...
Source : Frontline : Muslims

Interview : Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (1)

What are the fundamentals of Islam? What does it teach to be a Muslim?

The fundamental idea which defines a human being as a Muslim is the declaration of faith: that there is a creator, whom we call God -- or Allah, in Arabic -- and that the creator is one and single. And we declare this faith by the declaration of faith, where we ... bear witness that there is no God but God. And that we are accountable to God for our actions.

And that's the bottom line?
That is the universal Quranic definition of a person who is a Muslim. Because God says in the Quran that there is only one true religion, God's religion. It's the same theme that God revealed to all of the prophets, even before Muhammad. They all came to express the truth about ultimate reality: that the ultimate reality, with a capital "R" is God; that God created this universe; and God created humanity for a very specific purpose and mandate, which is to recognize what he or she truly is -- a being created, as we say in the Judeo-Christian world, in the image of God. The Quran uses a different language. It says, created out of a divine in-breathing, because the Quran says when God created the shape, the form of Adam from clay, God says, "When I shall have breathed into him from my spirit." Then he announced to the angels, "Fall in prostration to Adam."
So the defining aspect of a human being is that the human being has within its envelope a piece of the divine breath. This is the Quranic definition of what you might call the quote, unquote, "divine image in the human envelope." And the human mandate is to recognize this essential definition of self, and to acknowledge the very special relationship that exists between that self and the creator.
It doesn't sound so different from Christianity or Judaism.
The Quran does not speak about Christianity or Judaism. You will not find that word once mentioned in the Quran. But you'll find many, many instances of Christians and Jews, because the definitions the Quran uses are human-based definitions. Not conceptual definitions; very much it speaks about the realities. So God, for example, is creator. God is seeing. God is knowing. God is all-powerful. You don't have words of concepts as much. God is beautiful. So the ascriptions or the descriptions or the adjectives are what are used to describe the creator. Religion is defined by the relationship between God and man. And Islam is the submission and the acknowledgment of the human being to the creator.

Could you just give me a short version on how these two religions are related to one another?

God says in the Quran that there is not a single community on earth to whom we did not send a messenger. So the same message, the same truth, was revealed to all of humanity through a series of prophets; whose complete number, we don't know. The Quran mentions 25 of them by name. But the message is one: that God is one; that the creator is single; that the creator has no partner; that the creator is described by the perfection of a number of attributes, which Muslims call the divine names. So God is one; God is almighty; God is all-seeing; God is all-knowing; God is all-hearing. God is compassionate, merciful, forgiving, loving. God is just. And so forth.
So we are forbidden to ascribe to God attributes of weakness or imperfection. So we cannot say God is one, but God is poor; God is one, but God is blind, for instance, or doesn't have the attribute of seeing. It is equally important for Muslims to assert, not only the oneness of God, but the perfection of his attributes.
And the message, in its substance, embodies what Jesus said were the two greatest commandments. When Jesus was once asked, "Rabbi, or Rebbe, what are the greatest commandments?" he said, "To love the lord your God with all of your heart, with all of your soul and all of your mind." And the second, which is co-equal with it: that you love your neighbor as you love yourself. Love for your brother or your sister, what you love for yourself. Not to harm them in a way that you do not wish to be harmed.
That again embodies these two principles: A, that you have to acknowledge the creator correctly. And B, that you are going to be held accountable for your ethical decisions and choices. And the particular form of revelation was a function of society. So every prophet or messenger spoke in his own language to his own community. Some words were spoken in Hebrew, or in ancient Egyptian. Every revelation was given in the language of the community to whom it was sent. The rituals may have been a little bit different, but the essence of the rituals were there: prayer, charity, and fasting.
Source : Frontline : Muslims

Friday, October 24, 2008

Construct A New Currency

The crisis in Asia and Latin America has been the economy and threaten the stability of developing countries, even the 1997 crisis and 1998 is a threat to the entire world economy. Mid-1997 crisis is also in Indonesia, even Indonesia is a country that suffered the most severe. Economic growth in previous years around 7% per year until the sharp slump - 13.7% and inflation reached 77.6% in 1998, which begins, the occurrence of the exchange rate fluctuation in July 1997. Europe tried to prevent the crisis by creating joint currency, the Euro, which initially lower the value of the U.S. Dollar, Euro, but now the value is higher than U.S. dollar. In 2008, the United States also experienced a crisis that affects the entire world crisis, the United States because of trade with other countries using the currency of dollars the United States.
Learning from Europe, the Middle-East countries and Asia can also make a joint currency, for example, political or Dirham. Dinar is the currency in the Roman era and Dirham is the currency in the Persian era. Trade is the basis of the economy in Arabia before Islam came. Prerequisite for the transaction is the means of payment that can be trusted. Arabia and neighboring areas are under the direct authority of Persia and Rome. Unit of the money is used countries is the Dirham and the dinar. In the transaction of business Arabia in the second type of currency is also accepted. With more strong political both countries, the payment instrument is more trusted in the region that are under the influence of power. Because of that factor, the Persian nation and the nation's Roman is the only trading partner of the Arab people (Sadr, 1989).
Dirham coin and the dinar has the weight and still have the content of silver or gold that remains. However, during the dynasty Umayyah and weighing Abbassiyah dynasty changed, so also in the Persian own. In the period after Islam, the content of silver coins Dirham between different areas of one to the other, but in the early Islamic period has been fixed. At this time the amount of charity gold and silver as mentioned in the book is based on the severity of the holy Dirham and the dinar coin set in the early Islamic period (Kattani, 1975:413). Value of one dinar equal to ten Dirham (Sadr, 1989). But in the Dynasty Fathimiyah namely in the Al-Hakim bin Amrillah dinar price equal to 34 Dirham because many Dirham mixture (Al Maqrizy, 1988:70-80). In dinating the Ottoman period, the official financial system Utsmaniah since 1534 Base on the goods in gold and silver mines, with 1:15 (Imarah, 1993:101). In addition dinar and Dirham, there is money to meet the needs for goods sales slightly cheaper price of one Dirham or part of the Dirham, because the first since up to now people need a tool to exchange other than gold and silver. To meet the needs of the purchase of cheap goods, they print a few of copper in the process of small pieces of money given name (copper cash) (Al Maqrizy, 1988:90). Value of money compared Dirham in the early Islamic period is 1: 48 (Al-Hallaq, 1986:17). Value does not keep the money to increase the copper Dirham in the year 756 H with a ratio of 1: 24 (Al-Sayuthi, 1975:104).
Dinar and Dirham is the currency stable world from the beginning of Islam until now. Inflation in 1400 after years is zero. The price of chicken in the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. 1 Dirham and now is still about 1 Dirham (Vadillo, 1998). Dinar currency is ideal to facilitate and improve international trade and minimize speculation in the paper money that can trigger the Asian currency crisis of 1997. The existence of a fund unity between the countries of East and Central Asia will increase the quantity of trade between the countries in the region and help enhance economic development if the condition of providing money dinar were successful. Currency idea to help minimize the gold dinar currency hagemoni dollars the United States and once again use the dinar as an international currency because the value of paper currency continues to fluctuate sepertimata not have the money value of gold is stable and durable, their value is the value of the metal itself.

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

The Property

Al-Maal (property) in Arabic means gold, silver and livestock. Meanwhile, according to the terminology of sharia, al Maal is anything that has value and can be obtained and ownership by the appropriate sharia.
Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. look in the property based on the fact that, property is owned by God and man is given the power (trust) to manage properly. Humans do not have the absolute power of wealth and property must spend part of God according to sharia, such as in the Qur'an Al Hadiid paragraph 5 - 7: To Him belongs the kingdom of heaven and earth. And to Allah all matters. He entered the night into day and day into the night. Knowing him and all the breasts. Believe in Allah and His Messenger, and donated part of the wealth that God has made you. But those who believe in you, and donate part of the property are those who believe. Similarly, the Qur'an, Al Munaafiquun paragraph 7: They were people who said (to those Anshar): "Do not give shopping to the people (Muhajirin) in the Messenger of Allah so that they disperse (leave the Messenger of Allah) ". Even Allah belong the treasures of heaven and earth, but the hypocrites do not understand.
He also suggested that property is not outstanding on the rich only. "What are the property of the loot given to Allah, His Messenger, which comes from the residents of the cities it is for Allah, His messenger, the messenger relatives, orphans, poor people and those in the travel, so that the property is not only circulating among the rich only between you. What is the messenger to you, then accept it. And what the effect of prohibiting and leave for the fear of God. He is very hard Punishment "(Al Hasyr 7). Even, God forbid to stockpile wealth. "Woe to every slanderer again detractor. , Which collects property and calculated. He spent that it can make a lasting "(Al-Humazah 1-3.

The first sharia bank in Kuwait

Kuwait Finance House (KFH) was established in the State of Kuwait in 1977, as the first bank operating in accordance with the Islamic Shari'a. KFH is listed in Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE), with a market capitalization of KD 3.133 billion as of 31 December 2006. Assets total KD 6.314 billion and deposits amount to KD 3.730 billion, representing 25% of the total deposits in the Kuwaiti market as per the balance sheet of 2006.

KFH has been highly rated by prestigious international agencies. Standard & Poor's rated KFH A-/A2 for short and long term investments, respectively. Capital Intelligence rated KFH A/A1 for short and long term investments, respectively. Fitch International also rated KFH A, and Moody's rating was Aa3. KFH has been awarded by The Banker magazine as the world's Best Islamic Financial Institution, and for third successive year it has been awarded by EuroMoney magazine as the best bank.

KFH provides a wide range of Islamic Shari'a compliant products and services, covering banking, real estate, trade finance, investment portfolios, and other products and services.

Since the 1980's, KFH has witnessed multi-activity in international expansion. It has established independent banks in Turkey, Bahrain, and Malaysia. Moreover, it has stakes in other Islamic banks. Its investment activities in the US, Europe, South East Asia and the Middle East contributed tremendously to achieving the ever-growing profit of KFH, in collaboration with the world's leading companies and banks, such as Citibank, Deutsche Bank JP Morgan, Chase, BNP Parisbas, ABN Amro, HSBC, and Islamic Development Bank (IDB).

KFH has always endeavored to expand its local branch network, covering 42 branches, in addition to special sections for ladies. It adopts the out-of-branch client concept. KFH has maintained its foothold as a pioneering entity in utilizing the latest technologies to meet the requirements of the various activities in which it operates, using online, SMS, as well as phone service (Allo Baitak), which has received the highest accreditation from the US Purdue University for outstanding customer service level.

KFH is proud of its manpower skills. It employs a number of outstanding human resources, and is a pioneer in manpower Kuwaitization, where Kuwaiti manpower exceeded 52%.

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Arabia Desert

Arabia Desert inhabited by nomadic tribes in Akkadian called Aribi, often invade neighboring countries, such as Arabia Felix and Mesopotamia, which they sometimes gain victory. To understand the isolation that is known as a person without a history of hard work is required, however they are known as a camel rider in the century to the ninth or ten before Christ (BC). In 250 BC the various tribes of Arabia began to move toward Levant. Tribe noted that the tribe is Qedar and Nabatu the road to the area Edomit, Moabite and Jews. In the Parthian and the Roman period, several dynastic grip on the city in Arabia Syam (France) and Iraq. The city is among other Palmyra, Emesa, Edessa, Hatra, Chacene and Gerrha. Meanwhile, modern people generally think that the population of Arabia as the Arab Peninsula, experts in ancient history often refer people with the name of their tribe directly. This merupakjan which is very important to find people who are indeed Arab.
Petra Arabs living between Egypt and Mesopotamia, which finally set the odyssey of them as a way of life, build some of the city. The main people in this region and the Nabasia people are Petra as their capital. The oldest reference to the Arab people can be found in the Book of Genesis Gospel, where Arab traders buy and sell children with Josep Jacob. References in the report found other war King Assyirian Salmanasser in 853 BC and a report about a kingdom called Aribi, mentioned from Tiglath-Pileser III (745 - 727 BC) to the front and the followers of Asssyrian to mid-second century ketujuah. Then, by Arab kings Babilonia be caused to bow Nabonidus, which create a relaxing oasis theme, and reached the capital Yatribu (Medina). According to Greek researchers, Herodotus, the Persian king Cambyses is not occupying the Arab attack on Egypt 525 BC. Its successor, Darius I did not mention in the Arabic inscription Behistun from the first year of reign, but note them in the end. This shows that Darius is only part of the area subjected Arabia. There are no instructions that indicate loyal or not loyal to the king of Persia. After the Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire between 335 to 323 BC, part of Arabia which left more or less autonomy for centuries. In 106 CE (M), the Jordan Arabia related to the province as the Roman empire under the power of Trajan. There are few cities in this province from north to the medical, Adraa (dara '), Dion, Gerasa (Jerash), Philadelphia (Amman) and Aila (Aqaba). During the Roman period, and the historian Josephus Strabo with the free use of the word jumble Nabasia with the Arab kings and vice versa Nabasia known as the king of the Arab kingdom and they are known as Arabia. But this is only the suitability to become the Province of the Kingdom of Nabasia Arabia, which include the Empire Rowawi. Although, the control of sea routes by Himyar very convincing. At the end of the third century, the king Samir Yuhar unify Yemen. He was considered important enough to negotiate with the king kestaraan in the Persian Empire.

Business Oportunity in Indonesia

The Indonesian government is targeting growth of the electronics industry around 13.15 percent in the period 2005-2009 with a target investment reached 2.5 billion U.S. dollars.

"Industrial consumption of electronics and components industry is a priority that will be developed in accordance with the National Industry Development Policy", said Minister of Industry, Fahmi Idris on the celebration of the achievement of the production of television (TV) Sharp to-10 million units in Jakarta on Thursday.

He said that currently there are approximately 230 companies in the field of electronics that operate in Indonesia. The government view the electronics industry, including leading the industry with a target of average growth in 2005-2009 reached 13.15 percent.

"To achieve these targets required additional investment of not less than 2.5 billion U.S. dollars, with hopes to create 15,000 new job opportunities per year," said Fahmi.

For that, he continued, the government has been working to create a conducive climate, especially related to taxation, fiscal incentives, and employment laws.

In addition, the government also refers to the electronics industry during this, there are many on the island of Java and Batam more spread to other areas through the regulation number 1 of 2007 to give fiscal incentives for certain industries and / or in certain regions, especially outside Java Island.

However, responding to question the government's plan and the elimination of the decline in Luxury Goods Sales Tax (PPnBM) a number of electronic products, Fahmi only hope that there are stages to this is the last one, given that the proposal has been around two years, but have not signed the Minister of Finance.

Meanwhile, Director General of Industrial Equipment and Transportation on (IATT)) • DEPPERIN Budi Darmadi said until now the target of investment of 2.5 billion dollars during 2005-2009 has reached around 70 percent.

"Until now about 70 percent of the target investment in the field of electronics has been reached. A number of companies from Japan, South Korea, and China, such as Sharp, LG, and Changhong, has been to instill and increase investment in Indonesia," he said.

President director of PT Sharp Electronics Indonesia (SEID) Fumihiro Irie said on the same opportunity that this year the government has added approximately 140 billion investment.

"Around Rp100 billion, we have investasikan to add new production lines refrigerator, because there is a large demand from the market in the country," he said.

While the rest, information Irie, is used to increase the production capacity of washing machines. He was optimistic Indonesia's electronic market will still grow next year with growth of around 20-25 percent, reported by Republika News.

News, Aboutaleb, Mayor of Rotterdam First Muslim

Rotterdam, Netherlands second largest city will have a mayor birth of the first Muslim Morocco since January 1, 2009. Ahmed Aboutaleb, Friday, introduced as a future mayor by the city council.

The government will still approve the adoption Aboutaleb, 47 years old, but this is considered a formality. Labor Party politician is the first mayor who was born and bred in the Netherlands. He also became the first Muslim citizens mayor in the Netherlands.

Aboutaleb was born in Morocco and wander to the Netherlands at the age of 14 years. He now serves deputy minister of social affairs, and was a member city council in Amsterdam.

The second largest party in the city council of Rotterdam, Leefbaar Rotterdam, responding to a serious development, the fact that the censure Aboutaleb have two nationalities, Morocco and the Netherlands. Fleur Agema, council members from the Freedom Party (PVV), supports it and will ask for an emergency meeting of parliament about the possibility of lifting it.

Kontoversi about citizenship Aboutaleb political arena in the Netherlands is the second time in the last two years. About pengangkatannya as deputy minister, Freedom Party also criticize the fact that Aboutaleb have dual citizenship. "Most do not cause the look of the dual loyalty," said Agema.

Both parties that support a policy of strict immigration and violent actions against crime by migrants. However, Mayor of Amsterdam, Job Cohen (Labor) praised Aboutaleb with the call "Highly".

But, he also criticize the fact that Labor is now occupying the three positions of mayors from the four largest Dutch cities, and the majority of the city's middle-sized cities. "No party has the mayor of the largest Christian Democratic government will be difficult to receive national funding for local projects," said Cohen.

The citizens of Morocco can not revoke their citizenship. Even their children born in the Netherlands automatically citizens of Morocco.

Dutch business that repeatedly tried to negotiate with Morocco Morocco to revoke the citizenship they always failed. Around 45 percent of the 582,000 citizens not born in Rotterdam Rotterdam or have parents who were born in foreign countries.

In Rotterdam, which has broad issues of social economy, crimes that involve the community in the problem of migrants is now a cause tensions with residents, the birth of Dutch citizens, reported by Republika News.

Sunday, October 19, 2008

Spiritual Leader in Business

In the book, SQ: Spiritual Intelligence-The Ultimate Intelligence, Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall told about a businessman from the United States and Mexico fishermen. Employers praised the United States that the fishermen and asked how long the time needed for catching it. Mexican fishermen said, “Only a moment.” American businessman was asked “Why do not you stay at sea longer to get more fish?”. “Fishing is already sufficient to meet the needs of my family” responsibility of the fishermen. “But, what you do with the rest?” Ask the United States businessmen. Mexican fishermen said “I sleep soluble, while fishing, playing with my children, sleep with my wife, walking to the village every night to sip wine and play guitar with my friends. I have a life full and busy, and Senior. ” American businessman is mocking, “I am a Harvard MBA graduates and can help you. You should use the time to catch more fish. With profits from there, you can buy a larger boat. Results from a larger boat you can buy some of the boat again. In the end, you will have a fleet of fishing boats. Rather than sell the catch to the middleman, you can sell directly to the fish-processing factory, and finally, you can open your own canning business. You will control the product, processing and distribution. Later, you must leave the small coastal village and move to Mexico City, then to Los Angeles, and finally, to New York, and you will run the company’s own growing. “Then the Mexican fishermen said that” Senior However, how long the time needed for this? “. American businessman said “Fifteen to twenty-five years.”

According to Danah Venus and Ian Marshall, American businessman in the story is stupid in the spiritual, while Mexican fishermen is intelligent in the spiritual. The fishermen have the understanding that the purpose of intelligent life on their own, which deems important, motivasinya own in the most. He was a lifestyle that can meet the needs of himself and his family, he was taking time for things that are meaningful for him, he felt peaceful, he concentrated. In the United States businessmen, children from the culture stupid in the spiritual, ambitious, he must achieve something for the achievement itself, with motivation gives life a deep, he has ambitions to absorb the meaning, only the ideals that he learned at Harvard. Fishermen that will likely be long and died with a peaceful, while the businessmen will be affected by heart attacks, died with the blues, because they do not successfully reach the factory that was converted.

The level of spiritual intelligence of Mexican fishermen are the new lowest levels of spiritual intelligence, that is meaningful nautical himself and his family. Levels of intelligence is both the spiritual meaning for the community and the highest mean for God, life is solely for worship to God. Prophet Mohamed divide time into three parts. One third for the Lord, one third for the community and one third for the family. Ite r.a. said, “The existence of the Prophet s.a.w. awake nights praying to split his feet, then I thought: Why do so when God forgive the sins of the past and the future? “Answer the Prophet” is not for me to be a servant grateful to Him. ”

In leading the Prophet Muhammad is beloved friend. God made him a leader in those tools and those past. He makes his friends as well as the friends of the Prophet. “The best of my Ummah is the people who love you, and you love them. And a bad my Ummah is the people hate you, and you hate them “Messenger of heat. Speech last before the funeral was “my Ummah ….. my Ummah” because he is his love.

Rasululah s.a.w. eager to invite joke with his wife and the way they thought accordance with the degrees of their intellect and morals in the act. Messenger s.a.w. love their children, often greet them when on the road and play with them. Grandson Hasan and Husin often climb back when the Prophet and the Prophet prayer is not disturbed children who are skittish. Most of the grandson of Prophet smell. In the household of Prophet said “My home like heaven for me.”

Saturday, October 11, 2008

The Influence of the Implementation of Sharia Principles in Banking: by M. Suyanto

The objective of my research was to analyze the influence of the implementation of sharia principles on the bank performance and the welfare of employees and society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia by selecting the bank performance as an intervening variable. The population of this research was sharia banks in Indonesia between 2002 and 2006. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze a series of dependence relationships among variables simultaneously.
The study of several concepts and indicators in sharia banking revealed the following models. First, the implementation of sharia principle variable was influenced by several indicators, i.e., sharia financing, sharia funding, and aqad compliance. Second, the bank performance variable was influenced by a number of indicators, i.e., profitability, solvency, and commitment to community. Third, the society welfare variable was affected by indicators of financing, qordul hasan and zakat-infaq-sodaqoh. Fourth, the employee welfare variable was influenced by the indicators of salary-bonus, general benefits and relegious benefits.
The results showed that first, the implementation of sharia principles had a positive and significant influences on the Sharia Bank performance of at α = 0.05 with a path coefficient of 0.95 and p value of 0.000, suggesting that the implementation of sharia principles in Sharia Banks in Indonesia which is getting better, more consistent and more sustainable would, in turn, improve the bank performance or result in the higher profitablility and solvability and give the benefit to the small business entrepreneurs joining the Sharia Banks as customers. Second, the implementation of sharia principles had an insignificant influences on the welfare of society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia at α = 0.05 with a path coefficient of -0.23 and p value of 0.671, indicating that the implementation of sharia principles in Sharia Banks in Indonesia which is getting better, more consistent and more sustainable would not increase the welfare of society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia or would not increase the financing and qordul hasan portions as well as zakat-infaq-sodaqoh and social activities. Third, the implementation of sharia principles had an insignificant influences on the employee welfare of Sharia Banks at α = 0.05 with path coefficient of -0.03 and p value of 0.942, maintaining that the implementation of sharia principles in Sharia Banks in Indonesia which is getting better, more consistent and more sustainable would not improve the employee welfare of Sharia Banks. Fourth, the Sharia Bank performance had an influence on the welfare of society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia at α = 0.05 with path coefficient of 1.24 and p value of 0.034, revealing that an excellent performance of Sharia Bank would, in turn, improve the welfare of society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia.. Fifth, the Sharia Bank performance had a significant influence on the employee welfare at α = 0.05 with a path coefficient of 1.01 and p value of 0.027, explaining that an excellent performance of Sharia Bank would also improve the employee welfare in Sharia Banks in Indonesia.
Other findings showed an indirect effect, i.e., the implementation of sharia principles with the bank performance as the intervening variable, had a positive and significant influences on the employee welfare, with a path coefficient value (indirect effect) 0.96, suggesting that the implementation of sharia principles in Sharia Banks in Indonesia which has been getting better, more consistent and more sustainable, would result in the higher the bank performance. The higher the bank performance would, in turn improve the employee welfare of Sharia Bank. The implementation of sharia principles with the bank performance as intervening variable had a positive and significant influences on the society welfare, with a path coefficient value (indirect effect) 1.18, indicating that the implementation of sharia principles in Sharia Banks in Indonesia which has been getting better, more consistent and more sustainable, would result in the higher bank performance. The higher bank performance would, in turn, improve the welfare of society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia.
Based on the findings of the research, it can be concluded that the implementation of sharia principles in Sharia Banks in Indonesia which has been getting better, more consistent and more sustainable would, in turn, improve the bank performance. Moreover, the excellent of the bank performance would exert a significant effect on the welfare of employees and society involved in the activities of Sharia Banks in Indonesia.

Laws of Partnership in Islam

If two persons make an agreement that they would trade with the goods jointly owned by them, and would divide the profit between themselves, and if they pronounce a formula declaring partnership, in Arabic or in any other language, or express their intention of becoming each other's partner by conduct, the partnership will be valid. If some persons enter into a partnership to share the wages from their labour, like, if a few barbers or labourers agree mutually that they would divide between themselves whatever wages they earn, that partnership is not in order. But if they enter into a mutual compromise that, say, half of what one earns will be given to the other, for a fixed period, in exchange of half of what the other earns, this transaction will be valid, and thus each will be a partner in the wages of the other. If two persons enter into a partnership, on the terms that each of them would purchase the commodity on his own responsibility, and each would be responsible for the payment of its price, but would share the profit which they earn from that commodity, that partnership is not valid. However, if each of them makes the other his agent, authorising that whatever one purchases on credit, the other will be a partner in it, which means that he and his partner are responsible for the debt, then they will be considered partners in that commodity.
The persons who become partners under the rules of partnership, must be adult and sane, and should have intention and free volition for becoming partners. They should also be able to exercise discretion over their properties. Hence, if a feeble-minded person who spends his wealth impudently, enters into partnership, it is not in order, because such a person has no right of disposal over his property. If a condition is laid down in an agreement of partnership, that the partner who manages, or does more work than the other partner, or does more important work than the other, will get larger share of the profit, it is necessary that he should be given his share as agreed upon. Similarly, if it is agreed that the person who does not manage, or does not do more work, or does not do more important work, will get larger share of the profit, that condition is also valid and it must be fulfilled. If it is agreed that the entire profit will be appropriated by one person, or the entire loss will be borne by one of them, that sort of partnership is a matter of Ishkal. If it is not agreed that one of the partners will receive more profit, and if the investment of each of them is equal, they must share profit and loss equally. And if their investment is not equal, they should divide the profit and loss in proportion to their capital. For example, if two persons become partners, and the capital of one of them is double the capital of the other, his share in the profit and loss will also be double of the other, irrespective of whether both of them do equal work, or one of them does less work, or does not work at all. If it is laid down in the agreement of partnership, that both the partners will buy and sell together, or each of them will conclude transactions individually, or only one of them will conclude transactions, or a third party will be hired to conclude the transaction, they should act as agreed upon. If it is not specified as to which of the partners will buy and sell with the capital, neither of them can conclude any transactions with that capital without the permission of the other.
The partner who has been given the right of discretion over the capital, should act according to the agreement of partnership. For example, if it is agreed that he will purchase on credit, or will sell against cash payment, or will purchase the property from a particular place, he should act according to the agreement. However, if no such agreement is made with him, he should conclude transactions in the usual manner, and carry on in such a way that no loss is suffered in the partnership. He should not carry any property belonging to the partnership, with him while he is travelling, if that is unusual. If a partner who transacts business with the capital of the partnership, sells and purchases things contrary to the agreement made with him, or concludes transactions in a manner which is not normal, because of the absence of any agreement, the transaction made by him in both the cases will be correct and valid; but if such a transaction results in a loss, or a part of wealth is squandered, then the partner who has acted against the agreement, or the usual norm, will be responsible for the loss. If a partner who trades with the capital of the partnership, does not go beyond the bounds of his authority, nor is he negligent in looking after the capital, yet unexpectedly the entire capital or a part of it perishes, he is not responsible. If a partner who trades with the capital of the partnership, declares that the capital has perished, and if other partners trust him, they should accept his word. But if they do not trust him, they can complain against him before the Mujtahid, who will decide the case according to Islamic laws.
If all the partners withdraw the permission, given by them to one another, for the right of discretion over their respective shares held in partnership, none of them will be allowed the right of discretion over them. And if one of them withdraws the permission accorded by him, the other partners do not have the right of discretion; but one who has withdrawn his permission can exercise his right of discretion over the property of the partnership. If one of the partners demands that the capital invested in the partnership should be divided, others should accept his demand even if the period fixed for the partnership may not have expired yet, except when the division of the capital entails considerable loss to the partners. If one of the partners dies, or becomes insane, or unconscious, other partners cannot continue to exercise right of discretion over investment held in the partnership. And the same rule applies when one of them becomes feeble-minded that is, spends his property without any consideration.
If a partner purchases a thing on credit for himself, its profit and loss belongs to him. However, if he purchases it for partnership, and if the agreement allows credit dealings, its profit and loss belongs to both of them. If the partners conclude a transaction with a joint capital investment, and it transpires later that the partnership was invalid, if the validity of the transaction was not dependent on mutual consent, meaning that, if they had known that the partnership was not valid, they would have still been agreeable to having the right of discretion over the property or stock of each other, the transaction will be considered valid, and whatever is gained or lost from the transaction will be shared by them. But if the partners would not have been disposed to agree to exercise discretion over each others' stock or property had they known that the partnership was not valid, yet they approve the particular transaction, it will be valid - and if they do not, it will be invalid. And in either case, if any partner has worked for the partnership without the previous intention to work gratis, he can collect the wages for his services at the usual rate, considering the percentage of other partners. But if the usual wage is more than his share of dividend, after having agreed to the validity of the transaction, he should take the dividend only.

Do Muslims Want Democracy and Theocracy?

According, John L. Esposito and Dalia Mogahed, cutting across diverse Muslim countries, social classes, and gender differences, answers to our questions reveal a complex and surprising reality. Substantial majorities in nearly all nations surveyed (95% in Burkina Faso, 94% in Egypt, 93% in Iran, and 90% in Indonesia) say that if drafting a constitution for a new country, they would guarantee freedom of speech, defined as "allowing all citizens to express their opinion on the political, social, and economic issues of the day."
However, while acknowledging and admiring many aspects of Western democracy, those surveyed do not favor wholesale adoption of Western models of democracy. Many appear to want their own democratic model that incorporates Sharia -- and not one that is simply dependent on Western values. Actually, few respondents associate "adopting Western values" with Muslim political and economic progress. Abuses in the name of Sharia have not led to wholesale rejection of it.
In our data, the emphasis that those in substantially Muslim countries give to a new model of government -- one that is democratic yet embraces religious values -- helps to explain why majorities in most countries, with the exception of a handful of nations, want Sharia as at least "a" source of legislation.
• In only a few countries did a majority say that Sharia should have no role in society; yet in most countries, only a minority want Sharia as "the only source" of law. In Jordan, Egypt, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh, majorities want Sharia as the "only source" of legislation.
• Most surprising is the absence of systemic differences in many countries between males and females in their support for Sharia as the only source of legislation. For example, in Jordan, 54% of men and 55% of women want Sharia as the only source of legislation. In Egypt, the percentages are 70% of men and 62% of women; in Iran, 12% of men and 14% of women; and in Indonesia, 14% of men and 14% of women.
Ironically, we don't have to look far from home to find a significant number of people who want religion as a source of law. In the United States, a 2006 Gallup Poll indicates that a majority of Americans want the Bible as a source of legislation.
• Forty-six percent of Americans say that the Bible should be "a" source, and 9% believe it should be the "only" source of legislation.
• Perhaps even more surprising, 42% of Americans want religious leaders to have a direct role in writing a constitution, while 55% want them to play no role at all. These numbers are almost identical to those in Iran.

Prophet Daniel

Ibn Abi Al-Dunya narrated the following, based on a chain of citations. Nabuchadnezzar captured the two lions and threw them into a pit. He then brought Daniel and threw him at them; yet they did not pounce at him; rather, he remained as Allah wished. When then he desired food and drink, Allah revealed to Jeremiah, who was in Sham (Palestine/Syria): "Prepare food and drink for Daniel." He said: "O Lord I am in Jerusalem while Daniel is in Babylon (Iraq)." Allah revealed to him: "Do what I have commanded you to do, and I shall send you one who will carry you and what you have prepared." Jeremiah did so and Allah sent him something that would carry him until he arrived at the brink of the pit. Then Daniel asked: "Who is this?" He answered: "I am Jeremiah." He asked: "What brought you?" He answered: "Your Lord sent me to you." He said: "And so my Lord has remembered me?" He said: "Yes." Daniel said: "Praise be to Allah Who never forgets those who appeal to Him! And Praise be to Him Who compensates good with good, rewards patience with safety, dispels harm after distress, assures us when we are overwhelmed, and is our hope when skill fails us."
Yunus Ibn Bakeer reported that Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq reported that Abu Khalid Ibn Dinar reported that Abul Aa'lia said: "When Tastar was invaded, we found, in the treasure house of Al-Harmazan, a bed on which lay a dead man, with a holy script at his bedside. We took the scripture to Umar Ibn Al Khattab. He called Ka-b and he translated it into Arabic, and I was the first Arab to read it. I read it as I read the Qur'an." Here, I (Khalid Ibn Dinar) said to Abul Aa'lia: "What was in it?" He said: "Life history, annals, songs, speech, and what is to come." I asked: "And what did you do with the man?" He said: "We dug in the river bank thirteen separate graves. At nightfall we buried him and leveled all the graves in order to mislead people for they would tamper with him." I asked: "And what did they want from him?" He said: "When the sky was cloudless for them, they went out with his bed, and it rained." I asked: "Who did you think the man was?" He said; "A man called Daniel." I asked: "And for how long had he been dead when you found him?" He said: "Three hundred years." I asked: "Did not anything change on him?" He said: "No, except for the hairs of his face (beard, and mustache); the skin of the prophets is not harmed by the earth, nor devoured by hyenas."
The chain of citation from Abul Aa'lia is good, but if the date of the dead man's death was really three hundred years, then he was not a prophet but a saintly an, because there was no prophet between Isa (Jesus)(pbuh), and the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), according to the hadith in Bukhari. The span between them (the dead man and Muhammad (pbuh)) was variously reported as four hundred, six hundred, and six hundred twenty years. It could be that he had died eight hundred years earlier, which would be near to Daniel's time, if his being Daniel is correct. However, he could still have been somebody else, either a prophet or a saint. Yet the truth is more likely he was Daniel, because he had been taken by the King of Persia and remained imprisoned as already mentioned.
It was narrated with a correct citation that his nose as one span (nine inches) long. Anas Ibn Malik, with a good citation, said that his nose was an arm's stretch long (two feet), on which basis he is thought to be an ancient prophet from before this period. Almighty Allah knows best.
Abu Bakr Ibn Abu Dunya related without citation that when Abu Musa was told that he was Daniel, he stayed with him, embraced him, and kissed him. Then he wrote to Umar that he found with him nearly ten thousand Dhirhams. It used to be that people came to borrow from it, and if they did not return it, they became sick. Umar ordered his burial in a grave to be kept secret and the money to be sent to the treasury, with the b ox and the ring a gift to him (Abu Musa).
It is related of Abu Musa that he told four of the captives to dam the river and dig a grave in the middle, where he buried him. Then he beheaded the four captives in order for the secret to be kept from all except himself.
Ibn Abu Dunya also reported, by a chain of citations, that a ring was seen on the hand of Ibn Abu Barda Ibn Abu Musa. The gem was carved with two lions with a man between them, whom they were licking. Abu Barda said: "This is the ring of that man whom the people of this town say is Daniel. Abu Musa took it the day he was buried. The learned people of the town told Abu Musa that soothsayers and astrologers told the king in Daniel's time that a boy would be born who would destroy him and his kingdom. So the king swore to kill all the baby boys, except that they threw Daniel in the lions' den, and the lion and lioness began to lick him and did not harm him. His mother came and took him. Abu Musa said: "And so Daniel carved his image and the image of the two lions into the gem of his ring, for him not to forget Allah's blessing upon him in this.'" This has a good citation

Sale of Gold and Silver Against Gold and Silver

If gold is sold against gold, and silver is sold against silver, whether it is in the form of coins or otherwise, if the weight of one of them is more than that of the other, the transaction is haraam and void. If gold is sold against silver, or silver is sold against gold, the transaction is valid, and it is not necessary that their weight be equal, but if it is sold on credit or stipulated time, the transaction will be void.
If gold or silver is sold against gold or silver, it is necessary for the seller and the buyer that before they separated from each other, they should deliver the commodity, and its exchange to each other. And if even a part of the thing about which agreement has been made, is not delivered to the person concerned, the transaction becomes void.
If either the seller or the buyer delivers the stock in full as agreed, but the other person delivers only a part of his stock, and they separate from each other, the transaction with regard to the part exchanged will be valid, but the person who has not received the entire stock can cancel the transaction.
If silver dust from a mine is sold against pure silver, and gold dust from a mine is sold against pure gold, the transaction is void, unless one is sure that the quality of silver dust is equal to the quantity of pure silver. However, there is no harm in selling silver dust against gold, or gold dust against silver, as mentioned earlier.

Persons Who Have No Right of Disposal or Discretion Over Their Own Property

A child who has not reached the age of puberty, (bulugh), has no right of discretion over the property he holds or owns, even if he is able to discern and is mature, and the permission of his/her guardian does not apply in this case. However, in those cases where a Na-baligh is allowed to make a transaction, like when buying or selling things of small worth as mentioned in rule 2090, or his testament for his relatives and kinsmen, as will be explained in rule 2706, the right can be exercised. A girl becomes baligha upon completion of her nine lunar years, and a boy is baligh when stiff pubic hair grow, or when he discharges semen, or upon completion of fifteen lunar years.
Growing of stiff hair on the face and above the lips may be considered as signs of bulugh, but their growth on chest and under the armpits, and the voice becoming harsh etc. are not the signs of one's reaching the age of puberty, except that one may become sure of having reached the age of puberty due to these changes.
An insane person has no right of disposal over his property. Similarly, a bankrupt (i.e. a person who has been prohibited by the Mujtahid to dispose of or have discretion on his property because of the demands of his creditors) cannot dispose his property without the permission of the creditors. And a feeble-minded person (Safih) who squanders his property for useless purposes, has no right of disposal or discretion over his property.
If a person is sane at one time and insane at another, the right of discretion exercised by him during his lunacy will not be considered valid.
A dying man in his terminal illness can spend his own wealth on himself, on the members of his family, his guests and on other things as much as he likes, provided that, it is not considered to be extravagance on his part. Also, he can sell his property at its proper value, or hire it. But if he gives away his property as gift, or sells it at a lower price than usual, it will be valid if the property gifted or sold cheap is equal to or less than 1/3 of his estate. And if it is more, it will be valid only if the heirs allow, and if they do not, then whatever he spent in excess of 1/3 of his estate will be considered void.

Individual Obligations, Rights and Self-Interests

In Islam man is charged with certain obligations toward his Creator, nature, himself and other human beings, all of which are outlined by the shari’ah. When these obligations are fulfilled, certain rights and freedoms, which are also delineated by the shari’ah, are gained. Limitations which are imposed by the shari'ah on the rights and freedom of the individual are in the direction of removing certain negative possibilities from the human life. The obligations, rights and limitations defined by the shari'ah must be observed if the individual and the system are to have an Islamic identity.
Within the framework of the shari’ah, and as a result of the Islamic concept of justice, the individual has the right to pursue his economic interests. Pursuing one's economic interests, within the framework of the shari’ah , is first an obligation and a duty, then a right which no one can abrogate. So long as the individual has the ability, the right of pursuing his economic interests is, concomitantly, extended to him. What is, however, significant is the fact that i f power and ability to pursue one's economic interests is lacking, the responsibility is no longer incumbent upon the person, while his rights are still preserved. II The right to economic benefits is never negated as a result of the lack of the ability of the individual to undertake his duty of pursuing his economic interests. The potential right remains even if a person is unable to actualize it. Conversely, if the person is able but does not perform his obligations, then his rights are abrogated.
According Khan and Mirakhor, In Islam, contrary to popular opinion, self-interest is not negated. Islam, in fact, considers it as a primary factor in its incentive/motivation system; a necessity in any organized society if the individual is to find it utility maximizing to follow behavioural rules prescribed by the system. Provided that self-interest is defined to cover spiritual and temporal, or temporary and eternal, all rules in the shari'ah carry with them their own justification in terms of individual self-interest. It is for his own benefit, material and spiritual, in this world and for his ultimate salvation in the next that the individual is invited to follow the rules of the shari’ah. This is made amply clear by the Qur'an in which all injunctions are generally coupled by the assertion that compliance with them with by the individual is for his own benefit.13 Often the incentive and the rewards, both here and in the hereafter, for compliance and th e retributions for non-compliance are enumerated. It is in pursuit of self-interest that individual obligations and rights as well as the limits to these rights are specified by the shari’ah.

Conditions for the Utilisation of the Property Given on Lease

The utilisation of the property given on lease carries four conditions:
(i) That it should be halal. Hence, leasing out a shop for the sale or storage of Alcoholic drinks, or providing transportation by leasing for it, is void.
(ii) That doing the act or giving that service free of charge should not be obligatory in the eyes of Shariah. Therefore, as a precaution, it is not permissible to receive wages for teaching the rules of halal and haraam, or for the last ritual services to the dead, like washing it, shrouding etc. And as a precaution, money should not be paid in lieu of any services which is deemed futile .
(iii) If the thing which is being leased out can be put to several uses, then the use permissible to the lessee should be specified. For example, if an animal, which can be used for riding or for carrying a load is given on hire, it should be specified at the time of concluding the lease contract, whether the lessee may use it for riding or for carrying a load, or may use it for all other purposes.
(iv) The nature and extent of utilisation should be specified. In the case of hiring a house or a shop, it can be done by fixing the period, and in the case of labour, like that of a tailor, it can be specified that he will sew and stitch a particular dress in a particular fashion.
If the time of commencement of a lease is not fixed, it will be reckoned to have commenced after the recitation of the formula of lease. If, for example, a house is leased out for one year, and it is stipulated that the period of lease will commence one month after the recitation of the formula, the lease contract is in order, even if the house had been leased out to another person at the time of reciting the formula. If the period of lease is not specified, and the lessor says to the lessee: "At any time you stay in the house you will have to pay rent at the rate of $10 per month", the lease contract is not in order.
If the owner of a house says to the lessee: "I have leased out this house to you for £10 per month" or says: "I hereby lease out this house to you for one month on a rent of $10, and as long as you stay in it thereafter the rent will be $10 per month", if the time of the commencement of the period of lease was specified or it was known the lease for the first month will be proper.
If travellers and pilgrims stay in a house not knowing how long they will stay there, and if they settle with the landlord that they will, for example, pay $1 per night as rent, and the landlord also agrees to it, there is no harm in using that house. However, as the period of lease has not been specified, the lease will not be proper except for the first night, and after the first night the landlord can eject them as and when he so wishes

Prophet Job

Ibn Ishaaq stated that he was a man of Rum. His name was Job, Ibn Mose, Ibn Razeh, Ibn Esau, Ibn Isaac (pbuh), Ibn Abraham (pbuh). Someone else said he was Job, Ibn Mose, Ibn Rimil, Ibn Esau, Ibn Isaac, Ibn Jacob. There have also been other statements on his lineage. Ibn Asaker narrated that his mother was a daughter of Lot (pbuh). It was said, also that his father was one who believed in Abraham (pbuh) when he was cast into the fire.
The first opinion is the most plausible, because he was a descendant of Abraham's offspring as Allah Almighty declared: "That was Our proof which We gave Abraham against his people. We raise whom We will in degrees. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob, each of them We guided and before him, We guided Noah, and among his progeny David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron. Thus do We reward the good doers. (Ch 6:83-84)
Allah the Almighty praised His worshipper Job in His Glorious Quran: Truly! We found him patient. How excellent a slave! Verily, he was ever oft returning in repentance to Us! (Ch 38:44)
Job (pbuh) was repentant, remembering Allah with thankfulness, patience, and steadfastness. This was the cause of his rescue and the secret of Allah's praising him.
A group of angels were discussing Allah's other human creatures, how those who were humble earned Allah's pleasure, while those who were arrogant incurred His displeasure. One of the angels remarked: "The best creature on earth today is Job, a man of noble character who displays great patience and always remembers his Generous Lord. He is an excellent model for the worshippers of Allah. In return, his Lord has blessed him with a long life and plenty of servants, as well as the needy and the poor share in his good fortune; he feeds and clothes the poor and buys slaves to set them free. He makes those who receive his charity feel as if they are favoring him so kind and gentle is he."
Iblis overhearing all of this, became annoyed. He planned to tempt Job to corruption and disbelief, so he hastened to him. He tried to distract Job from his prayers by whispering him about the good things in life but Job was a true believer and would not let evil thoughts tempt him. This disturbed Iblis even more; thus he began to hate Job even more.
Iblis complained to Allah about Job. He said that although he was continuously glorifying Allah he was not doing so out of his sincerity but to satisfy Allah so that his wealth should not be taken away. It was all a show, all out of greed. "If You remove his wealth then You will find that his tongue will no longer mention Your name and his praying will stop."
Allah told Iblis that Job was one of His most sincere devotees. He did not worship Him because of the favors; his worship stemmed from his heart and had nothing to do with material things. But to prove to Iblis the depth of Job's sincerity and patience, Allah allowed him to do whatever he and his helpers wished with Job's wealth.
Iblis was very happy. he gathered his helpers and set about destroying Job's cattle, servants and farms until he was left with no possessions. Rubbing his hands in glee, Iblis appeared before Job in the guise of a wise old man and said to him: "All your wealth is lost, some people say that it is because you gave too much charity and that you are wasting your time with your continuous prayers to Allah. Others say that Allah has brought this upon you in order to please your enemies. If Allah had the capacity to prevent harm, then He would have protected your wealth."
True to his belief, Job replied: "What Allah has taken away from me belongs to Him. I was only its trustee for awhile. He gives to whom He wills and withholds from whom He wills." With these words, Job again prostrated to his Lord.
When Iblis saw this, he felt frustrated, so he again addressed Allah: "I have stripped Job of all his possessions, but he still remains grateful to You. However he is only hiding his disappointment, for he places great store by his many children. The real test of a parent is through his children. You will see how Job will reject You."
Allah granted Iblis authority but warned him that it would not reduce Job' faith in His Lord nor his patience.
Iblis again gathered his helpers and set about his evil deeds. He shook the fountain of the house in which Job's children were living and sent the building crashing, killing all of them. Then he went to Job disguised as a man who had come to sympathize with him. In a comforting tone he said to Job: "The circumstances under which your children died were sad. Surely, your Lord is not rewarding you properly for all your prayers." Having said this, Iblis waited anxiously hoping Job was now ready to reject Allah.
But again Job disappointed him by replying: "Allah sometimes gives and sometimes takes. He is sometimes pleased and sometimes displeased with our deeds. Whether a thing is beneficial or harmful to me, I will remain firm in my belief and remain thankful to my Creator." then Job prostrated to his Lord. At this Iblis was extremely vexed.
Iblis called on Allah. "O my Lord, Job's wealth is gone, his children are dead, and he is still healthy in body, and as long as he enjoys good health he will continue to worship You in the hope of regaining his wealth and producing more children. Grant me authority over his body so that I may weaken it. He will surely neglect worshipping You an will thus become disobedient."
Allah wanted to teach Iblis a lesson that Jo was a devoted servant of his Lord so He granted Iblis his 3rd request but placed a condition: "I give you authority over his body but not over his soul, intellect or heart, for in these places reside the knowledge of Me and My religion."
Armed with this new authority, Iblis began to take revenge on Job's body and filled it with disease until it was reduced to mere skin and bone and he suffered severe pain. But through all the suffering Job remained strong in his faith, patiently bearing all the hardships without complaining. Allah's righteous servant did not despair or turn to others for help but remained hopeful of Allah's mercy. Even close relatives and friends deserted him. Only his kind, loving wife stayed with him. In his hour of need, she showered her kindness on him and cared for him. She remained his sole companion and comforter through the many years of suffering.
Ibn Asaker narrated: "Job was a man having much wealth of all kinds; beats, slaves, sheep, vast lands of Haran and many children. All those favors were taken from him and he was physically afflicted as well. Never a single organ was sound except his heart and tongue, with both of which he glorified Allah, the Almighty all the time day and night. His disease lasted for a long time until his visitors felt disgusted with him. His friends kept away from him and people abstained from visiting him. No one felt sympathy for him except his wife. She took good care of him, knowing his former charity and pity for her."
Therefore Iblis became desperate. He consulted his helpers, but they could not advise him. They asked : "How is it that your cleverness cannot work against Job, yet you succeeded in misleading Adam the father of man, out of Paradise?"
Iblis went to Job's wife in the form of a man. "Where is your husband?" he asked her.
She pointed to an almost lifeless form crumbled on the bed and said: "There he is, suspended between life and death."
Iblis reminded her of the days, when Job had good health, wealth and children. Suddenly, the painful memory of years of hardship overcame her, and she burst into tears. She said to Job: "How long are you going to bear this torture from our Lord? Are we to remain without wealth, children or friends forever? Why don't you call upon Allah to remove this suffering?"
Job sighed, and in a soft voice replied : "Iblis must have whispered to you and made you dissatisfied. Tell me how long did I enjoy good health and riches?"
She replied: "80 years."
Then Job replied: "How long am I suffering like this?"
She said: "7 years."
Job then told her: "In that case I am ashamed to call on my Lord to remove the hardship, for I have not suffered longer than the years of good health and plenty. It seems your faith has weakened and you are dissatisfied with the fate of Allah. If I ever regain health, I swear I will punish you with a hundred strokes! From this day onward, I forbid myself to eat or drink anything by your hand. Leave me alone and let my Lord do with me as He pleases."
Crying bitterly and with a heavy heart, she had no choice but to leave him and seek shelter elsewhere. In this helpless sate, Job turned to Allah, not to complain but to seek His mercy: "Verily! distress has seized me and You are the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy." so We answered his call, and we removed the distress that was on him, and We restored his family to him (that he had lost), and the like thereof along with them as a mercy from Ourselves and a Reminder for all who worship Us." (Ch 21:83-84)

Almighty Allah also instructed: "Remember Our slave Job, when he invoked His Lord saying: "Verily! Satan has touched me with distress (by losing my health) and torment (by losing my wealth)!" Allah said to him: "Strike the ground with your foot: This is a spring of water to wash in and cool and a refreshing drink." And We gave him back his family, and along with them the like thereof as a Mercy from Us, and a reminder for those who understand. (Ch 38:41-43)
Job obeyed and almost immediately his good health was restored. Meanwhile, his faithful wife could not longer bear to be parted from her husband and returned to him to beg his forgiveness, desiring to serve him. On entering her house, she was amazed at the sudden change: Job was again healthy! She embraced him and thanked Allah for His mercy.
Job was not worried, for he had taken an oath to punish her with a hundred strokes if he had regained health but he had no desire to hurt her. He knew if he did not fulfill the oath, he would be guilty of breaking a promise to Allah. Therefore in His wisdom and mercy, Allah came to the assistance of His faithful servant and advised him: "take in your hand a bundle of thin grass and strike therewith your wife, and break not your oath." Truly! We found him patient. How excellent a slave! Verily, he was ever oft returning in repentance to Us!" (Ch 38:44)
Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: "While Job was naked, taking a bath, a swarm of gold locusts fell on him, and he started collecting them in his garment. His Lord called him: "O Job! Have I not made you too rich to need what you see?" He said: "Yes, My Lord! But I cannot shun Your Blessings." (Al Bukhari)